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Carotenoid Name
IUPAC name beta,beta-Carotene
Molecular Weight 
536.848 g/mol
Mol file
Carotenoid DB Fingerprints 
Biological functions/Properties 
  • Photosynthetic pigment (Ref.500, Ref.503).
  • Photoprotective agent (Ref.451).
  • Present in most of the divisions of the reaction-center complexes (RC) and the light-harvesting complexes (LHC) of photosystem I (PSI) (Ref.461).
  • Provitamin A (Ref.408, Ref.410).
  • An antioxidant - free radical scavenger/singlet oxygen quencher. 101 times stronger than that of α-tocopherol - SOAC value: 101±5 (Ref.616, Ref.415, Ref.451, Ref.597, Ref.598, Ref.599).
  • Anticarcinogenic activity (Ref.414, Ref.491).
  • Cell differentioan and proliferation promoter by upregulating Connexin43 gene. (Ref.412).
  • Immune response enhancement in animals and humans (Ref.472).
  • Brownish yellow color (Ref.430).
  • Number of
    conjugated double bonds 
    Number of
    conjugated multiple bonds 
  • Constitutional isomer: CA00043, CA00045, CA00191, CA00298, CA00305, CA00587, CA01191, CA00677, CA00680, CA00681, CA00720
  • Cis/trans isomer: CA00311, CA00312, CA00310
  • InChI
    Canonical SMILES
    Hydrogen Bond donors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Hydrogen Bond Acceptors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Complexity of molecule
    Number of heavy atoms
    (Topological Polar Surface Area) 
    0.000 Å2
    Source organisms
    Thermus thermophilus (Ref.435) - Deinococcus-Thermus: Thermophilic bacterium
    Rhizobium lupini (Ref.449) - Alphaproteobacteria: root nodule bacterium
    Halobacterium cutirubrum (Ref.331) - Archaea: Euryarchaeota
    Halorubrum chaoviator Halo-G (Ref.333) - Archaea: Euryarchaeota
    Haloarcula japonica (Ref.621) - Archaea: Euryarchaeota, triangular, disc-shaped, extremely halophilic archaeon that requires high concentrations of NaCl for growth
    Micrococcus roseus (Ref.387) - Actinobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 1986 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 1375 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 2773 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Stigonema ocellatum (Ref.603) - Cyanobacteria: terrestrial cyanobacteria sampled from rock surfaces containing chlorophyll a
    Stigonema hormoides (Ref.603) - Cyanobacteria: terrestrial cyanobacteria sampled from rock surfaces containing chlorophyll a
    Scytonema crassum (Ref.603) - Cyanobacteria: terrestrial cyanobacteria sampled from rock surfaces containing chlorophyll a
    Acaryochloris marina strain MBIC 11017 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: symbiotic species Unicellular Cyanobacterium, an epiphyte on red alga
    Acaryochloris sp. strain Awaji (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: an epiphyte on red alga
    Prochlorothrix hollandica strain PCC 9006 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous oxygenic photoautotrophic procaryotes containing chlorophylls a and b.
    Prochloron sp. (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Ref.72) - Cyanobacteria: same as Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
    Oscillantoria rubescens (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix rubescens
    Oscillatoria agardhii (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix agardhii
    Oscillatoria amoena (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Oscillatoria tenuis (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: hot spring alga
    Oscillatoria limosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Oscillatoria princeps (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Arthrospira sp. (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium ectocarpi (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium percicinum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium foveolarum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium lucidum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcoleus paludosus (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcoleus vaginatus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Anabaena flos-aquae (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous cyanobacterium same as Dolichospermum flos-aquae
    Anabaena cylindrica (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: a nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena variabilis (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 (Ref.527) - Cyanobacteria
    Anabaena aerulosa oscillatorioides (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Cylindrospormum sp. (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc sp. (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc commune (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: star jelly, witch's butter, mare's eggs, fah-tsai and facai, eaten as a salad
    Tolypothrix tenuis (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: filaments repeated single false branched forming cyanobacteria, yellow-brown colored
    Calothrix parietina (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: a hair-forming cyanobacteria rom an upland stream
    Mastigocladus laminosus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Coccochloris elabens (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Anacystis nidulans (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942
    Synechococcus elongatus (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Merismopedia punctata (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: colony square or rectangular
    Synechocystis sp. (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Synechococcus leopoliensis (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Aphanizomenon gracile (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Planktothrix agardhii (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Bangia fuscopurpurea (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Bangia alropurpurea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (conchocelis)  - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Smithora naiadum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Compsopogonophyceae
    Porphyridium cruentum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Porphyridiaceae, unicellular alga
    Scinaia confusa (Ref.10) - Red alga: Nemaliales
    Scinaia latifrons (Ref.10) - Red alga: Nemaliales
    Bonnemaisonia hamifera (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bonnemaisoniales
    Nemalion helminthoides (multifidium)  - 
    Gigartina stellata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Rhodymenia palmata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Palmariales
    Antithamnion plumula (Ref.11) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Ceramium rubrum (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia brodiae (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia urceolata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Grateloupia setchelii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Prionitis lyalii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Callophyllis pinnata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Gelidium coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium johnstonii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium robustum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia capillacea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia lucida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Chondracanthus canaliculatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus corymbiferus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus exasperatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus spinosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus squarrulosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus volans (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella affinis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella accida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mastocarpus papillatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Eucheuma uncinatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Opuntiella californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Plocamium cartilagineum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Plocamium violaceae (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Gracilaria textorii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Centroceras clavulatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Microcladia coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Neoptilota densa (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Neoptilota hypnoides (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Acrosorium ciliolatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Cryptopleura lobulifera (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Phycodrys amplissima (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polyneura latissima (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Laurencia gardneri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Osmundea spectabilis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia hendryi (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia pacifica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Bossiella californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Bossiella orbignyana (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Calliarthron tuberculosum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Corallina officinalis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Corallina vancouverensis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Jania tenella (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Ref.12, Ref.13, Ref.14) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular green alga
    Chlamydomonas parkeae (Ref.15) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular marine flagellate
    Neochloris wimmeri  - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Ettlia carotinosa (Ref.16) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Protosiphon botryoides (Ref.16, Ref.17) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Scotiellopsis oocystiformis (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Ankistrodesmus spp. (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Pleurastrum paucicellulare (Ref.16) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Oedogonium cardiacum (Ref.16) - Green alga: Chlorophyceae
    Chara foetida (Ref.16) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chlorella fusca (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Chlorella zofingiensis (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Chlorococcum citriforme (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Coelastrum proboscideum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Muriella aurantiaca (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Muriella decolor (Ref.18) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Muriellopsis sp. (Ref.18) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Neospongiococcum gelatinosum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis aplanosporum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis intermidium (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis tetrasporum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis sp. (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Botryococcus braunii (Ref.19) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Ref.21) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Aegagrophila linnaei (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Basicladia sp. (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha okamurae (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora conchopheria (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora horii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora kosterae (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Pithophora sp. (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Wittrockiella lyallii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Wittrockiella paradoxa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Microdictyon boergesenii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis fasciculatus (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis membranacea (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis vaucheriaeformis (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Siphonocladus tropicus (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha crassa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora albida (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora coelothrix (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora glomerata (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora japonica (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora ohkuboana (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora pellucida (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora sericea (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora vagabunda (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Rhizoclonium grande (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chara tomentosa (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara vulgaris (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara contraria (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara gymnophylla (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara hispida (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara polyacantha (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara rudis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara intermedia (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara globularis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara aspera (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Nitella opaca (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Rhodomonas D3 (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Cryptomonas sp. (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Cryptomonas ovata (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Hemiselmis virescens (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Nannochloropsis oculata (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Nannochloropsis salina (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Pelagococcus subviridis (Ref.29) - Alga: Pelagophyceae
    Ochromonas sp. (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Chrysophyceae
    Poterioochromonas malhamensis (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Synurophyceae
    Olisthodiscus luteus (Ref.30) - Alga: unclassified stramenopiles
    Synura petersenii (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Synurophyceae
    Chromulina ochromonoides (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Chrysophyceae
    Sarcinochrysis marina Getler (Ref.30) - Alga: Pelagophyceae
    Hymenomonas carterae (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Isochrysis galbana (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Pavlova lutheri (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Pavlova sp. (NEP)  - Alga: Haptophyte
    Phaeocystis sp. (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Prymnesium parvum (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Coccolithus huxleyi (Ref.32) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Amphidinium carterae (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Gymnodinum nelsoni (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Gymnodinum splendens (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Gyrodinium dorsum (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Peridinium bipes (Ref.494) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Glenodinium sp. (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Dunaliella spp. (Ref.604) - Green alga: Dunaliellaceae
    Dunaliella salina (Ref.604) - Green alga: Dunaliellaceae
    Tovellia sanguinea (Ref.34) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Gonyostomum semen (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Vacuolaria virescens (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Chattonella japonica (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Fibrocapsa japonica (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Skeletonema costatum (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Skeletonema menzelii (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira eccentrica (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira oceanica (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira pseudonana (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira rotula (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Grammatophora oceanica (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Navicula pelliculosa (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Nitzschia sp. (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Euglena gracilis (Ref.37, Ref.38, Ref.40) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena gracilis var. bacillarus (Ref.41) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena rubida mainx (Ref.42) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena sanguinea (Ref.43) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena viridis (Ref.44) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Eutreptiella gymnastica (Ref.45) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Bathycoccus prasinos (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Mantoniella squamata (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Micromonas pusilla (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Arousa sp. (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Prasinococcus capsulatus (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Pycnococcus provasolii (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis olivace (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis pyriformis (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis rotunda (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Pseudoscourfieldia marina (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Tetraselmis wettsteinii (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis sp. (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Pyramimonas amylifera (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Tetraselmis chui (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis marina (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis rubens (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis subcordiformis (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis suecica (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis tetrathele (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Pyramimonas parkeae (Ref.48) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Ref.557) - Actinobacteria
    Fucus serratus (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Fucus vesiculosus (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Pelvetia canaliculata (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Ascophyllum nodosum (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Laminaria digitata (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Laminariaceae
    Laminaria saccharina (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Laminariaceae
    Cyanophora paradoxa (Ref.55) - Glaucophyte: a freshwater species
    Glaucocystis nostochinearum (Ref.55) - Glaucophyte: Glaucocystophyceae
    Porphyridium aerugineum (Ref.55) - Red alga: Porphyridiaceae, unicellular alga
    Asterocytis ramosa (Ref.55) - Red alga: Compsopogonophyceae
    Coccinella septempunctata (Ref.116) - Insect: seven-spotted ladybird
    Macrosiphum liriodendri (Ref.118) - Insect: aphid
    Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Ref.204) - Fungi: red yeast
    Camellia sinensis (Ref.215) - Land plant: tea, black tea, Camellia sinensis L.
    Cyanidioschyzon merolae (Ref.63) - Red alga: Cyanidiaceae, unicellular haploid red alga adapted to high sulfur acidic hot spring environments
    Gelliodes callista (Ref.253) - Sea sponge
    Lactuca serriola (Ref.265) - Land plant: prickly lettuce, milk thistle compass plant, scarole, compass-plant
    Lactuca saligna (Ref.265) - Land plant: wild lettuce, willowleaf lettuce
    Lactuca virosa (Ref.265) - Land plant: wild lettuce, bitter lettuce, laitue vireuse, opium lettuce, poisonous lettuce, tall lettuce, great lettuce or rakutu-karyumu-so
    Lactuca sativa L. (Ref.602) - Land plant: garden lettuce, cultivated lettuce, same as Lactuca sativa
    Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 (Ref.266) - Cyanobacteria: rod-shape unicellular cyanobacterium, diverged very early during the evolution of cyanobacteria
    Averrhoa carambola (Ref.281) - Land plant: starfruit
    Diospyros kaki (Ref.282) - Land plant: kaki persimmon
    Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme flavum (Ref.283) - Land plant: yellow paprika
    Rhodotorula minuta (Ref.506) - Fungi: red yeast
    Mangifera indica (Ref.284) - Land plant: mango
    Ipomoea batatas Lam. (Ref.295) - Land plant: sweet potato
    Boronia megastigma (Ref.297) - Land plant: brown boronia
    Botryococcus braunii Kawaguchi-1 (Ref.301) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Xantho poressa (Ref.307) - Crustacean: crab
    Extatosoma tiaratum (Ref.308) - Insect: giant prickly stick insect
    Corbicula japonica (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula sandai (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula clam (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Coffea arabica (Ref.323) - Land plant: arabica coffee
    Coffea canephora (Ref.323) - Land plant: robusta coffee
    Galleria mellonella (Ref.558) - Insect: greater wax moth
    Microciona prolifera (Ref.372) - Sea sponge
    Suberites domuncula (Ref.588) - Sea sponge
    Solorina crocea (Ref.374) - Fungi: lichen
    Arabidopsis thaliana (Ref.554) - Land plant: thale-cress, a model organism
    Rosa gallica officinalis (Ref.378) - Land plant: Rosaceae: French rose
    Protousnea sp. (Ref.388) - Fungi: lichen
    Passiflora edulis (Ref.129) - Land plant: yellow passion fruit
    Cladonia sp. (Ref.609) - Fungi: lichen, ascomycetes
    Cucumis melo Inodorus Group (Ref.392) - Land plant: orange-fleshed muskmelon "honeydew"
    Carica papaya (Ref.566) - Land plant: papaya
    Suberites sericeus (Ref.393) - Sea sponge
    Rana temporaria (Ref.420) - Common frog
    Rhacophorus bipunctatus (Ref.421) - Himalaya flying frog
    Calendula officinalis (Ref.430) - Land plant: common marigold
    Elaeis spp. (Ref.431) - Land plant: palm oil
    Fusinus perplexus (Ref.442) - Shellfish: univalve shell
    Phoenicoparrus andinus (Ref.471) - Bird: Andean flamingo
    Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Ref.471) - Bird: Puna flamingo
    Citrullus vulgaris (Ref.484) - Land plant: watermelon
    Spinacia oleracea L. (Ref.601) - Land plant: spinach
    Clione limacina (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Paedoclione doliiformis (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Limacina helicina (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Homo sapiens (Ref.407) - Human
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  • CAS
    Links to other DB
    KNApSAcK: C00000919
    LipidBank: VCA0001
    MassBank: CA000023
    ProCarDB: C1920

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